As the sophistication of the hackers grew, they began to enter police and judiciary radars. In the 80s and 90s, American and British MPs have passed laws allowing hackers to be taken to court. A series of operations followed, culminating in the so-called Sundevil Operation, led by the US Secret Service in But these efforts failed in stopping hackers.
With internet increasingly more present, new groups emerged, always eager to practice their skills. In , members of a group of hackers called L0pht said before the US Congress that they could take the Internet down in 30 minutes. Another, calling himself Dark Dante, used his knowledge to handle phone lines of a radio show so he could be the number to call in a promotional campaign and win a Porsche For Rik Ferguson, researcher of security at Trend Micro, actions such as these show how hackers cross the line between legal and illegal activities.
Hackers may have arisen in the United States, but they became a global phenomenon. In Romania, groups such as HackersBlog have attacked several companies. In China and Russia, it is believed that many hackers work as government agents. For all that, besides security in networks, the spread of viruses or "worms" have also become a global concern. In November , Robert Tappan Morris, student at Cornell University, was at MIT launching what would be considered the first malicious code to be spread on the internet.
The "Morris Worm", as it became known, spread rapidly and load many systems down. The worm has surprised administrators and users as they had never seen a similar attack. Although the worm had no malicious charge, a problem in its programming overloaded some infected systems, preventing their operation. In addition to initiating the enhancement of security in software, the most notable consequence of this episode was the creation of CERT Computer Emergency Response Team , a team of experts responsible for communicating and handling security incidents.
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Many countries and even companies have, today, teams with the same goal. Robert Tappan Morris was convicted of fraud in computers in He hasn't gone to jail, but he had to pay a fine of 10, dollars and pay hours of community service. Today, the "creator of the first virus" is a professor at MIT. If Morris worm has the status of pioneer between Internet viruses, it is by "LOVEYOU", created in , possibly in the Philippines, the title of most harmful, having generated a loss of almost 10 billion dollars.
Of all known viruses this was the one that brought more problems and losses around the world. The reason is obvious: everyone would open an email whose subject is "I Love You". It was estimated that 50 million computers have been infected in only ten days. Beyond ordinary users, large bodies of governments around the world had their PCs affected by the virus. After founding the Wikileaks in , a confidential database built collaboratively, programmer and journalist Julian Assange was involved in the publication of documents on extrajudicial executions in Kenya, toxic waste in Africa and the treatment of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, among.
On November 28 of the same year, the Wikileaks site began publishing secret telegrams of US diplomacy. Assange thus became a kind of threat to the US government, which since then has him on target. Today, he lives in exile in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London.
Edward Snowden, in turn, is a systems analyst, a former CIA and NSA National Security Agency employee who has made public details of several programs that make up the American global surveillance system. The revelation that the agency spied on governments of "friendly" nations such as France, England and Brazil was a big diplomatic issue. In reaction, the US government accused him of government property theft, unauthorized communication of national defense information and intentional disclosure of classified intelligence information to unauthorized person.
Snowden is now exiled in Moscow. Both Assange and Snowden became, by their actions, myths of hacktivism for freedom of information and transparency in the actions of governments worldwide. On this side of the tropics and beyond In this same context and beyond a strictly technological sphere, it is worth to mention, in Brazil, the Transparency Hacker group, which, according to its own definition, is "a community of practice that brings together hackers, developers, sociologists, clowns, journalists and many more people seeking a new way of doing politics".
THacker was formed in October of , from a HackDay - a day when interested in the hacker practice from various fields meet to develop applications with government information and public data.
- Community Participation and Geographic Information Systems.
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In June of , THacker launched, through a collective funding platform, the project of the Hacker Bus - a laboratory on wheels in which hackers from different latitudes may board, moved by the desire to occupy Brazilian cities with political actions. The very Transparency Hacker defines: "For political action, we understand all technological appropriation, all hacks, all questioning and rights practice.
Amalgamated to the DIY proposition, hacking can be inserted in the everyday life through pedestrian achievements. The concept no longer applies only to computer experts or cybercriminals, but to ordinary people interested in changing, customizing or subverting everyday products to improve their functions, redirect them or just for plain fun. Nowadays, the term applied to the result of this type of interference is called "life hacking", "object hacking" or "product hacking", which is not very different of the idea of makeshifts.
In this sense, "hacking meets the gambiological practice, where a candy tube can turn into a flashlight, an old bicycle wheel into a wall clock, a suitcase into an armchair, forks into hooks, bottles into lamps or cups into musical instruments. It is of a Brazilian hacker from Minas Gerais state the credit for inventing a pet bottle lamp, which, filled with water and bleach, works by sunlight refraction, without electricity.
Alfredo Moser's invention is now disseminated through about 15 fifteen countries, including the Philippines, India, Mexico and Colombia. No object is safe. Internet has contributed to amplify and spread "life hacking" to the extent that it is possible to find on websites, blogs, tutorial forums, videos, photos and texts, how simple and accessible it is for anyone to subvert the function of an object, or of a system. When White Hats find flaws, they usually communicate first to the responsible for the system, just so appropriate actions are taken. Grey Hat - an intermediary hacker between White and Black, someone who, for example, break into systems for fun, but avoid causing serious harm and doesn't copy sensitive data.
Newbie - Often abbreviated NB, is the term used in a quite pejorative sense to designate a novice hacker.
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Phreaker - a hacker specialized in telephony. Foto: Daniel J. Durante o funeral, o Sr. Swarz citou Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, entre outros, que de alguma forma burlaram a lei para desenvolver seus produtos de sucesso.
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Por exemplo, Naspster e BitTorrent. Academic OneFile. Aaron Swarz became a celebrity. For the general public, this happened especially after his suicide on January 11 of In a google search we can find around These are texts that detail the portrait of a prodigy child, possessor of a "genius" developed early, when he fostered projects with his other colleagues, such as Infogami which was later incorporated to Reddit , Markdown and RSS.
These reports multiplied after his death, somewhat overshadowing dramatic moments of his life, and in many cases relating his intelligence to depression although no medical diagnosis proves this assertion and making it difficult to understand the scope of the judicial process that he was facing at the moment of his death. The projects previously cited achieved great commercial success, and Aaron was invited to be a student in a special class at Stanford University in the United States.
This clashed with his interest in spaces of free creation and information sharing. And Swarz had already understood that power in the network age was in the hands of those who controlled the channels of information and made some content to the detriment of others available, based on criteria that users themselves would not control.
Scientific research is largely conducted from public funding. But the distribution of this knowledge is in the hands of private indexing systems that often serve as the criteria for measuring the output of academic researchers. It is no longer just about access, but about a framework that validates the science produced in the hands of a few.
In the Open Access Guerrilla Manifesto Swartz points directly to the problem of a corrupt and exclusionary structure: "Large corporations are obviously blinded by. The laws under which they operate are ask for this And the politicians they bought support this, passing laws that give them exclusive power to decide who can make copies. By understanding the systems that permeated the distribution of knowledge produced in universities, Swarz saw the innards of an educational system that hides the typical perversity of the market, and he decided to act.
Between late and early , Aaron used an internet connection as a guest within MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology using the codename of Gary Host, which he abbreviated as ghost ghost to download thousands estimated more than 4 million of scientific articles of the JSTOR portal.
Notably, the Guerilla Open Access Manifesto was used as evidence by the prosecution that Aaron intended to provide the material downloaded from JSTOR via p2p network and configure their acts as crimes. David Segal, from the NGO Demand Progress, in which Swarz was a collaborator, compared this prosecution to a desire to arrest someone for "looking at a lot of books in a library.
Based on this law, the prosecution was able to increase the charges against Swarz from around 4 to 13, while also increasing his possible sentence to 35 years in prison and a fine of one million dollars. Upon his bbeing portrayed as a computer genius, the This idea seeks to make invisible or limit the scope of the issues involved, such as the control of information that permeates the case, from access to academic papers to processes like Wikileaks.
The fact that the Swarz trial occurred in an almost exemplary maner, with extreme rigidity on the part of the prosecution, shows us that the cause advocated by him was much more relevant and broader than the portraits of prodigy genius. One result is the review of the CFAA law to bear the name of the activist, proposed in by Congresswoman Zoe Lofgreen, which did not receive enough support from Congress to even be voted on this review intends to exclude violations or non-compliance with the terms of service from the list of crimes covered by the law.
According to law professor Orin Kerr from Washington University Law, the review has not raised the interest of the general public, since it would only be of interest of a few, although the lobby of companies such as Oracle against it was public and notorious.